- 1 Basic Data
- 2 Design-led Nexus Approach
- 3 M-NEX Platform
- 4 Urban Living Labs
- 5 Related Information
- The Moveable Nexus: Design-led Urban Food, Energy and Water Management Innovation in New Boundary Conditions of Change
- Prof. Wanglin Yan, Keio University (Japan, Lead PI)
- Dr. Bijon Kumar Mitra, Institute of Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) (Japan)
- Prof. Greg Keeffe, Queens University Belfast (UK, PI)
- Mr. Kevin Logan, Maccreanor Lavington (UK)
- Prof. Sami Sayadi, Qatar University (Qatar, PI)
- Asso. Prof. Geoffrey Thün, University of Michigan (USA, PI)
- Prof. Andy van den Dobbelstee, Delft University of Technology (NL, PI)
- April 2018.4 ~ March 2021.3
Facets of study sites
|Partner City||Belfast (BEL)||Doha (DOH)||Detroit (DET)||Sydney (SYD)||Tokyo (TOK)||Amsterdam (AMS)|
|Main thematic||Divided city||Food security||Vacancy and Capacity building||Urban Development process||Ageing and disaster risk||Co-creation of spatial|
|Bioregion||Northern Ireland||Arabian Desert||Great Lakes Basin||Sydney Basin||Kanto Plain & Tama Hills||Atlantic Mixed Forest|
|Scale||Neighborhood||Precinct: Uni-campus||Metropolitan region||Large Greenfield: 3rd City||Neighborhood||Neighborhood|
|FEW-focus||F: Diet, E: Algae, W: Flood||F: Local plantation, lowering UHI, E: Solar, W: Drought, reuse,||F: Urban production, E: Waste to energy, W: Great Lakes Basin,||F: Regional food-bowl, E: Large and small hydro, W: Heat||F: Food in urban rooftop/rural, E: Solar, W: Water-river basin||F: High tech, vertical, E: Wind & integrated renewables, W: flood, controlled|
|Motto||‘The Aquaponic city’||‘The urban water machine’||‘The post-industrial city’||‘The fridge city’||‘WISE city’*1||‘The circular city’|
|Take away||Technologies||People Engagement||Regional synergies
|Far future design||Community Engagement||Design with flows for far future|
|Goal||Existing technologies in the city||Expanding the effectiveness of food production in the city with minimal water availability||How to overcome jurisdictional barriers||Using landscape as cooling machine through plantation, crops and water||Multi-layer FEW cycles||Close FEW cycles at city level|
|Data||Baseline data||Place based data (QU campus)||Regional jurisdictional data||Regional landscape data||Building and land use data||Flows of FEW data|
|Method for workshop||Roadshow||Design workshop||Large scale spatial drawing||Creative COCD||Design Workshop & GIS analysis||Stakeholder co-design|
|Outputs||Part I of few-print: Advanced FEW Technologies in the city into the future||Part II of few-print: Community gardens and permaculture, for higher scales||Part III of few-print: Jurisdictional system, Visualizing Cascading systems and scales||Part IV of few-print: FEW-urban landscapes||Part V of few-print: FEW-integration in local community||Part VI of few-print: Energy cascading / REAP for Food and Water|
Note: *1 WISE=Wellness, Intelligent and ICT, S: Sustainable and Smart, E: Ecology, energy, economy. This is the catchphrase of the project in Yokohama City for next Generation of suburban town.
Design-led Nexus Approach
Design is by its nature a trans-disciplinary approach to problem solving, which draws upon logic, imagination, intuition, and systemic reasoning in order to explore potential innovative solutions to problems [Kimbell, 2011]. Designers explore concrete integrations of knowledge that will combine theory with practice for new productive purposes [Buchanan, 2010], integrating the opinions and needs of multiple stakeholders. In spite of the romantic image that design is a highly personal process, in most cases design proposals are in fact the culmination of shared knowledge and consensus on a specific issue [Kimbell, 2012]. These advantages make a design-led approach particularly appropriate to addressing wicked problems. The integration of food, energy and water is not yet mainstream. and there is no established design methodology in practice. The nexus approach with regards to FEW in particular was not common in urban planning and design because of the complexity of the problem per se, the uncertainty of outcomes, and the difficulty of communication between scientific research and design as it is practiced. This article proposes a design-led approach through the concept of the moveable nexus. The goal is to mobilize natural and social resources in urban spaces with integrated technology and knowledge in order to uncover and carry out FEW management innovations. It is also a response to the call of Sustainable Urban Global Initiative: Food-Water-Energy Nexus (SUGI-nexus)[SUGI, 2016] by Belmont Forum and the Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe. In their words they ask us “to move stakeholders to action through dialogue from a sector oriented technocratic approach to one that recognizes more diverse viewpoints and rationalities”.
The nexus idea can be traced to works by Ignacy Sachs in the late 1970s and early 1980s, in particular with reference to the food and energy nexus in UNU(United Nations University) food-energy program [Sachs, 1980, 1988]. The World Bank worked on the food, water and trade nexus [McCalla, 1997] and later replaced the idea with new concepts, including virtual water, at the Kyoto World Water Forum in 2003 [Allan, 2003a; Merrett, 2003]. The importance of the three nexus pillars of water, energy, and food was officially recognized at the first Nexus Conference in Bonn, Germany 2011 [Hoff, 2011], making that year Nexus Year One. Since then, our understanding on the nexus has been seriously improved. The essence of the nexus thinking can be summarized [Martínez-Martínez & Calvo, 2010; Hoff, 2011; Kurian & Ardakanian, 2015]:
- Investing to sustain ecosystems
- Creating more with less
- Accelerating accessibility
Understanding and acting upon this concept is central to diminishing the human footprint on planetary boundaries [Kurian & Ardakanian, 2015]. Implementation of these principles relies on finding solutions to the question: Where, how, and who will produce food for cities [Yan and Roggema, 2019]:
- Where - the relationship of production and consumption
- How - the relationship between costs and benefits
- Who - relationship between working and living
Initiated by the Belmont Forum SUGI/M-NEX project, the moveable nexus is considered as an innovative methodological package for FEW management and utilization that make use of the spatial, temporal, and service linkages of natural and social resources. It helps designers and practitioners to structure the procedures, knowledge and techniques in design practices with regards to FEW. It is also a moveable platform to deliver the accumulated methods and techniques across cities and countries with regards to practice, with the following three principles:
- to mobilize social and natural resources to create more with less for all the needed with design solutions.
- to move stakeholders to action through cross sectoral dialogue with informed platform of M-NEX.
- to move around local and global to the needed with the support of guiding principles and informed platforms.
The package offers an indication as to how to practice nexus thinking in a way that will lead to its integration with urban planning, architectural design, and environmental policy studies. Ultimately it is a communication platform that can be moved to a design site with the support of scientific data and knowledge.
- Six research sites
M-NEX research consortium with seven organizations in six countries (Japan, UK, Qatar, United States, the Netherlands, Australia) has been established, with its study areas being Tokyo-Yokohama, Belfast, Doha, Detroit, Amsterdam, and Sydney. The cities differ in terms of geographical features, bioregions and societal conditions, but from the table it is clear all cities are mature and share several common concerns in terms of sustainability in their urban areas. The project will take the complex sustainability challenges of its involved cities, and communicate FEW design solutions in concrete, visual, and physical ways to stakeholders and residents. This will deepen the understanding of FEW and promote consensus-building on actions plans for future cities. Each country team will determine the research contents in consideration of the local needs and proceed collaboratively. For example, the UK team (Belfast) will work on design of food factories, while the Dutch team (TUD) will focus on energy planning in FEW-nexus. All of the teams will learn from each other and study the potential to incorporate FEW-management into their own cities. Ultimately, they will deliver their research findings, policy recommendations and technical innovations, such as implementation of FEW at a University campus (Doha), revitalization of a post-industrial city (Detroit), and future FEW strategies for consumption-oriented cities (Tokyo-Yokohama, Sydney).
- Charrette Design Workshops
The moveable nexus shall be developed incrementally through a series of design workshops at the above six living labs with all of the partners (see Figure 3). The project engagement will consist of six stakeholder workshops, one in each living lab that engage with key aspects of the FEW, in a bioregional context. This international workshop coincides with one of the (six) participatory workshops in each city. The international team will participate in this workshop and bring their particular skills and knowledge to it. Each of these international workshops has their own focus. The first workshop in Belfast focuses on the creating an Initial vision on the technical food systems and the city. In the second workshop in Doha the focus is on the city farm, stakeholder participation and urban agriculture. Workshop three (Detroit) focuses on climate futures, development of regional scenarios and resilience in light of a changing climate. Workshop four (Sydney) focuses on building Integration, integrating FEW-technologies at user scale. Workshop five (Tokyo) focuses on stocks and flows for regional planning and the nested neighborhood. And the final workshop (Amsterdam) focuses on implementation, from strategy to tactics. Each team will bring its own topics to the international design workshop, and the teams together will refine them and build common design methods, evaluation indicators, and co-creation mechanisms. The teams will bring what they have learned back to their countries, put them into practice in their local Living Labs and undertake action toward the next international workshop. Finally, the knowledge obtained at each workshop will be integrated and provided as expertise and solutions from the M-NEX Project at each level, from building to neighborhood, city, and region.
- Urban Living Lab
Each national team builds an urban living lab in the study area, hold stakeholder and community design workshops, consider local FEW-topics, and develop solutions. The urban living lab in each city is featured with the local social and bioregional context. see "Urban Living Labs" below.
- Data Management
- Local production and local consumption
- Urban agriculture
- Redesign urban food life
- Best practices
Design applications of FEW-nexus in cities could take a diversity of forms, including technology or policy, buildings or landscape, commercial products or public engagement programs.
- M-NEX Guidline
Design methods at the moveable nexus provide guiding procedures to explore solutions with stakeholders. The procedures of the design method construction consist of the follow steps in general as shown in Figure 2.
- Inventorying FEW-related existing or potential resources and availability of space for urban agriculture, including rooftops, vacant houses, or abandoned, improperly used or void lands.
- Designing solutions to improve the efficiency of land and space use for food production and ecosystem services with less energy and water consumption by integration of FEW technology and knowledge.
- Composing the nexus matrices that mobilize the material and flows of resources cross sectors and disciplines in the social-ecological context.
- Evaluating the environmental costs and the added benefits of the solutions through the enhancement of spatial, temporal and service connections among specific social-ecological systems.
- Delivering the alternatives of solutions to and reiterate the design process with stakeholders.
This is co-design and a reflexive process with stakeholders. The inventory includes social, financial, industrial aspects. The mobilization of resources implies the activation and connection of existing and potential capitals across industrial, administrative and academic boundaries with more flows and services.
- Best practices
The evaluation of design solutions is a tricky issue. There exists a long list of indicators to assess the impact of human activities on the environment, such as the most typical ones, food mileage (f), CO2 emissions (e), virtual water use (w) and EF(Ecological Footprint) etc. However, no such an indicator could properly describe the interaction of food, energy and water. EF[Wackernagel & Rees, 1998] converts the CO2 emission in human consumption to land area equivalent to the area of forest demanded for absorbing the correspondent emission.
- M-NEX Guidline
M-NEX proposes an indicator few-print which express the quantity of FEW resources to be consumed and the flow, that is, the service among the three layers. The few-print is a combination of food mileage (f), CO2 emissions (e), virtual water use (w). It also represents the ambition of nexus thinking, creating more with less. On the other hand, the functions of urban agriculture are multifaced. People enjoy home gardens or shared farming not necessarily for the CO2 reduction but rather for other benefits, such as education, health, culture and communication etc. Similarly, some new issues can emerge from the process, such as a reduced few-print that goes along with reduced accessibility to those resources by the residents of an area. Investors might also pursue common shared values with the public on urban agriculture and ecosystem services rather than on food production itself. Therefore, in addition to few-print, we incorporate three social indicators in perspective of citizens’ quality of life, health and happiness (H), accessibility (A), and resilience (R), (collectively refer to HAR). Although each indicator has been intensively studied, such as the health and happiness [Groenfeldt, 2006; Urban Nexus, 2013a], accessibility [Walker et al., 2010], and resilience [Magis, 2010; Mitchell, & Harris, 2012] the trade-offs and synergistic effects with environmental factors have not been examined. The development of the few-print and HAR is a complex process in design. The numbers might mean different things as scales change from household, to city block to neighborhood, to the city and bioregion. The indicators of the moveable nexus in this way may not be useful tools to judge the quality of solutions but more appropriate for communication. Stakeholders will need to understand the trade-off and synergy of different solutions at different scales so that each partner could rethink the relationships about costs and benefits, and their behavior.
- Best practices
Involving users in urban design and development has long been a core concept though practice is often different between social contexts [Bergvall-k, Howcroft, Ståhlbröst, & Melander, 2010]. “Through engagement with a product or service over time and space, the user or stakeholder continues to be involved in constituting what a design becomes” [Kimbell, 2012]. Designers explore concrete integrations of knowledge that will combine theory with practice for new productive purposes [Buchanan, 2010]. “Design with users, design by users or design for users are popularly advocated within areas like innovation and product development” [Bjögvinsson, Ehn, & Hillgren, 2012; Wahl & Baxter, 2008]. However, how to sustainably involve stakeholders especially over the long term is not easy for any participatory project. There are examples, however they tend to be self-selecting groups who have bought into a larger goal. The community involvement of residents in Freiburg, who collectively built their eco town over decades. People who move to Freiburg did so in order to be part of that process [Freiburg, 2018]. Bringing otherwise regular people into design is a more challenging task.
- M-NEX Guidline
In the moveable nexus, the participatory mechanisms are the collaboration process of four type of partners:
- intermediate support organizations,
- the local community,
- experts in spatial planning,
- and public or private sectors.
Each partner owes specific resources and advantages such as physical spaces, skills, knowledge, financial or regulative options. Our understanding is that intermediate support organisations, mostly driven by local actors, play a key role to connect stakeholders together. The engagement of the multiple stakeholders is conducted through a series of design workshops in the moveable nexus. All of the stakeholders incorporate equity into every stage of design process, from research to formulation [Powell, 2016]. During the workshop, design experts visualize resources and produce solutions. Local community gain awareness of the issues and co-create the shared values. Private or public sectors could be inspired and then turn the plan and design into political and business actions. The design workshops will be informed with scientific evidence. The moveable nexus provides a platform for communication and learning of stakeholders, in which the FEW resources and evaluation indicators aforementioned are installed. As the results, the design solutions incorporate the wishes and intentions of all of the participants and then fits a variety of action plans and projects, while enriching the physical and social resources that are unique to the region. Finally, the moveable nexus itself is co-developed incrementally with stakeholders through the processes in practice. Urban living labs are used as a platform to implement/accommodate the contents of the moveable nexus and secure the sustainability of the practice.
Urban Living Labs
- Living lab network
Urban Living Labs (ULL) are initiatives that focus on the collaboration of multiple stakeholders (government, industry, research institutions and communities] in different stages of the research, development and innovation process [Thinyane, Terzoli, Thinyane, Hansen, & Gumbo, 2012]. It is also a recommendation of funding agencies such as JPI Europe Urban. Over the decades, the concept of living labs has become widely accepted in design practice with design thinking and system thinking [Kimbell, 2011], shifting design from design “things” to design “Things”[Bjögvinsson et al., 2012]. The moveable nexus by its nature requires the bioregion-specific collaboration of stakeholders. On the other hands, the methodology and platform of the moveable nexus could be applied everywhere for the researcher, designers and practitioner who share common understanding. An urban living lab could be an existing one run by cooperative stakeholders or a new one initiated by researchers. With the support of a living lab, researchers could work strategically with stakeholders to co-design long-term strategies for urban productivity in light of changing contexts. The living labs created in research areas could be part of a global network for comparative studies. The moveable nexus and urban living labs are complementary ideas each other. The former provides contents while the latter has advantages of practical platforms with stakeholders. The moveable nexus could also help urban living lab to move around with the shared contents, thereby enabling global deployment. In this sense, the moveable nexus could add new values to urban living labs with integrated solutions for urban FEW managements.
- Best Practices
Compared with regards to its popularity to open innovation, lead users, public health, IT tools, user-driven design [Bergvall-Kåreborn, Holst, & Ståhlbröst, 2009], it has only a limited success. Voytenko, McCormick, Evans, & Schliwa  surveyed five living lab projects granted by JPI Europe Urban and concluded that the concept was mostly used to secure funding. There remain many questions about the impacts and effectiveness of urban living labs both in their own geographical domain and more broadly at regional and national scales. For example, how do ULLs evaluate their own impacts? How do they build on feedback results and findings of evaluation to improve their activities and impacts? Researchers, designers and stakeholders have difficulties in communication with each other because of the gaps between scientists and citizens, long-term global goals and the short-term personal interests on sustainable issues as well as FEW issues. Answering the questions need a collaboration network working on common issues with a designated scheme.
- Site description
The 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Tohoku revealed the vulnerability of modern cities. Many areas in Japanese cities were built in the twentieth-century postwar period of high economic growth and are now approaching a time when infrastructure and other upgrades will be needed. Japanese cities are also facing declining birthrates and aging of the population and becoming more compact, even as they face rapid changes on the spatial and temporal dimensions in terms of the supply and demand for food, energy, and water [Moreno-Peñaranda, 2011]. Urban Living Lab Tokyo is going to work in cooperation with WISE Living Lab, a community-based project initiated by Yokohama City and Tokyu Corporation since 2012. In the summer of 2018 the Japanese government selected 29 municipalities as pilot SDGs model projects including Yokohama City, started to tackle these issues [Cabinet, 2018]. The M-NEX Japan Team is designing new management systems to secure the accessibility of urban FEW in the Tokyo-Yokohama metropolitan area plus sustainable improvements in the quality of life, and the necessary infrastructure to support all of that.
- Stakeholders engagement
- M-NEX TKY is recognized as a project of WISE Living Lab in April 2018 under the program of Future Suburban city initiated by Tokyu Company and Yokohama City. M-NEX is also recognized as a pilot project in Yokogama SDGs Design Center, contributing to the government-granted SDGs future city program.
- M-NEX TKY established the joint project “Visualizing the ecosystem services in Futako-Tamagawa” with Tamagawa Town Community, Tokyo City University, NPO Waterfront Biodiversity Network. The project acted regularly, organized meetings, field tours, and workshop every two months. The project also contributed to the Research Group for Green Infrastructure in Setagaya Ward, supported by Setagaya Ward government. M-NEX join research meetings regularly and co-organized workshops.
- M-NEX TKY approached to Nagata Corporation, a farmer in SFC around and worked with Field Yu, a citizen farming group supported by Nagata Corp.
- M-NEX TKY cooperates with IT companies to develop a field sensor network and AR sandbox for monitoring and simulating land use changes and the impact on water and energy.
- M-NEX TKY develops partnerships with utility companies, Municipalities and NPOs in Great Tokyo-Yokohama Metropolitan Area, including Tokyo Gas, Yokohama Waterworks, Department of Agriculture and Environment of Kanagawa Prefecture, Setagaya Ward Tokyo and Yokohama City etc.
- Site description
Northern Ireland has generally weak infrastructure and a very poor natural gas network due to the recent civil strife known as 'the Troubles’. In supply side of food, a strong reliance on imported food due to heavily industrialised and dense beef and dairy farming, very little arable agriculture. On the other hands, a strong dependence on the car due to poor public transportation in conjunction with poor diets due to food poverty, leads to increasingly prevalent issues surrounding obesity and diabetes. The Belfast Living Lab is based in the designated Urban Villages project. This project funded by the Northern Ireland Assembly works in 5 of the most deprived neighborhoods in Northern Ireland, to facilitate sustainable development of these at risky groups.
- Stakeholders engagement
- Site description
Qatar has limited water resources; the climate is too hot and dry for much agriculture; dust storms are a serious threat. It has the highest per capita emissions of carbon dioxide in the world because of free electricity and the reliance on energy-intensive desalination for potable water. Qatar is extremely vulnerable to rising sea levels and rising temperatures due to climate change. A recent embargo by neighboring states including Saudi Arabia, a major food supplier of Qatar, has heightened the necessity for more efficient and resilient food systems and supplies. The Living Lab in Qatar will be built on the existing Edible and Regenerative Campus project as well as on ongoing research and networks at Qatar University related to the FEW-nexus such as new food crops, halophytes and microalgae and reuse of water, etc.- under the theme of the "The Urban Water Machine" with the engagement of all the University communities.
- Stakeholders' engagement
- M-NEX DOH collaborates with the Facilities and General Services Department to fulfill Qatar University’s commitment to Zero Waste reflected in its 2025 Zero Waste Plan. QU University is committed to creating a Zero Waste Campus by enhancing the volumes of its recycling operations and by reducing the amount of waste produced within the campus to stop waste from being be sent to landfills, incinerators, or the ocean.
- M-NEX DOH works together with the Center for Sustainable Development at Qatar University, which is equipped with lab facilities, an ongoing living lab in areas of sustainable development specifically in food production, water treatment, waste management, microalgae CO2 capture, and biomass conversion.
- M-NEX DOH develops a partnership with Qatar Development Bank, which has a program to support urban farming at the household level in Qatar. Doha Living Lab can support this program with theoretical training and hands-on practice at its demonstration site.
- M-NEX DOH collaborates with Agrico Agricultural Company, which has one of the most sophisticated air-conditioned hydroponic facility and is the first certified organic local company in Qatar. The urban-scale net house in the Doha Living Lab will be designed and installed by Agrico, proving together with knowledge and expertise in the hydroponic cultivation methods.
- M-NEX DOH cooperates with BiobiN and QUBE Technologies to sustainably manage organic waste in QU Campus.
- M-NEX DOH developed a partnership with the Qatar Green Building Council (QGBC) and the Arab Engineering Bureau (AEB).
- Site description
Referred to globally as an example of post-industrial shrinking cities, Detroit has suffered from chronic socioeconomic and race segregation coupled with income inequality that amplified de-population of the central city. The urban footprint of Detroit is vast (143mi2) in area, and designed in parallel with the emergence of the automobile and models of single family car ownership. Currently 22mi2 acres of vacant residential and commercial land within the municipal limits. Extensive area of land are characterized as brownfields. While USDA metrics for food deserts point to a crisis of food access within Detroit, multiple alternative sources are emerging within the UA space. Community, NGO and larger organizations are undertaking urban agriculture practices and food hub production is increasing. This context is ripe for FEW-nexus based analysis. Which may assist stakeholders in catalyzing change while identifying multiple collateral benefits to water and biomass-linked processing practices. The M-NEX Detroit will work with the U-M Detroit Center as a LivingLab partner. Located in the heart of the city’s Cultural Center, the U-M Detroit Center serves as a gateway for University and urban communities to utilize each other’s learning, research and cultural activities.
- Stakeholders' engagement
- Site description
Amsterdam is dealing with climate adaptation issues and with the ambition to become climate neutral by 2050, as well as natural gas free. The city is still strongly reliant on food supply from elsewhere (only a small share comes from the region). Schiphol Airport is a collection point of waste (food, water, materials), which is treated or incinerated elsewhere, far away. The Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions (AMS) has The Circular City as one of their three key themes. AMS, an institute by TU Delft, Wageningen University and MIT, collaborates with the City of Amsterdam and local stakeholders, using the city as living lab for the transition to a sustainable future. The M-NEX Amsterdam is going to work in cooperation with the AMS Institute, the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Metropolitan Solutions. The M-NEX Living Lab will be selected and elaborated with AMS Institute and the City of Amsterdam, involving stakeholders from the city, public, private and individual to work together.
- Stakeholders' engagement
- Site description
It is foreseen the Sydney region will be confronted with a rapid increase in population in the next 20-30 years [Greater Sydney Commission, 2018]. The number of people will almost double and reach a total of approximately 8 million people. To cope with this enormous change the regional planning authority (Greater Sydney Commission) has presented the region as a metropolis of three cities: the old Harbour city in the East, the central Parramatta river city and the newly to be developed Western Parkland city around the new Badgerys Creek airport [Greater Sydney Commission, 2018]. The Urban Living Lab will be the new Western Parkland City, around the new Airport of Badgerys Creek. The task is to explore what new type of city could emerge here, given the fact that current development processes often not lead to a very smart, resilient and sustainable outcomes, as these neighbourhoods tend to have sparse green and trees, maximised housing space on plots, people commuting to the city and spend large amount on energy because of the need of airconditioners.
- Stakeholders' engagement
- Yan, W., & Roggema, R. (2019). Developing a Design-Led Approach for the Food-Energy-Water Nexus in Cities. Urban Planning, 4(1), 123–138.
- Mitra, B. K., Shaw, R., Yan, W., & Takeda, T. (2019). Water-Energy-Food Nexus: A Provision to Tackle Urban Drought (pp. 69–86). Springer, Singapore.
- Abdul Salam, P. Shrestha, S., Pandey, V. P. & Anal, A. K. (2017) Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Principles and Practices. American Geophysical Union. 264p.
- Al-Ansari, T., Korre, A., Nie, Z. & Shah, N. (2015). Development of a life cycle assessment tool for the assessment of food production systems within the energy, water and food nexus. Sustainable Production and Consumption, 2, 52-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2015.07.005
- Al-Saidi, M., & Elagib, N. A. (2017). Towards understanding the integrative approach of the water, energy and food nexus. Science of the Total Environment, 574, 1131–1139.
- Allan, J. A. (2003a). Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Virtual Water: A Definition. Water International, 28(1), 4–11.
- Allan, J. A. (2003b) Virtual Water - the Water, Food, and Trade Nexus Useful Concept or Misleading Metaphor? Water International, 28(1). 4-11.
- Ames, R. T., & Peter D. Hershock. (2015). Value and Values: Economics and Justice in an Age of Global Interdependence. University of Hawaii Press.
- Andersson, E., & Barthel, S. (2016). Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes. Ecological Indicators, 70, 606–614.
- Artioli, F., Acuto, M., & McArthur, J. (2017). The water-energy-food nexus: An integration agenda and implications for urban governance. Political Geography, 61, 215–223.
- Bai, X. (2018). Sustainability will be won or lost in cities. Volvo Environmental Prize. Retrieved from http://www.environment-prize.com/press-room/press/2018-–-sustainability-in-cities/.
- Barthel, S., & Isendahl, C. (2013). Urban gardens, Agriculture, And water management: Sources of resilience for long-term food security in cities. Ecological Economics, 86(October 2018), 224–234.
- Bazilian, M., Rogner, H., Howells, M., Hermann, S., Arent, D., Gielen, D., Yumkella, K. K. (2011). Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach. Energy Policy, 39(12). 7896–7906.
- Bears, R. (2017) The Green Economy and the Water-Energy-Food Nexus, Palgrave Macmillan. 423p.
- Berardy, A. & Chester, M. V. (2017). Climate change vulnerability in the food, energy, and water nexus: concerns for agricultural production in Arizona and its urban export supply. Environmental Research Letters, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa5e6d
- Bergvall-k, B., Howcroft, D., Ståhlbröst, A., & Melander, A. (2010). Participation in Living Lab: Designing Systems with Users. In International Federation for Information Processing 2010. pp. 317–326.
- Bergvall-Kåreborn, B., Holst, M., & Ståhlbröst, A. (2009). Concept design with a living lab approach. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS, 1–10.
- Bettencourt, L., & West, G. (2010). A unified theory of urban living. Nature, 467(7318), 912–3.
- Bhaduri, A., Ringler, C., Dombrowski, I., Mohtar, R. & Scheumann, W. (2015) Sustainability in the water–energy–food nexus. Water International, Vol.40 No.5–6: 723–732.
- Bjögvinsson, E., Ehn, P., & Hillgren, P. (2012). Design Things and Design Thinking : Contemporary Participatory Design Challenges Erling Bjögvinsson , Pelle Ehn , Per-Anders Hillgren. Technology, 28(3), 101–116.
- Bohn, K., & Viljoen, A. (2011). The edible city: envisioning the Continuous Productive Urban Landscape (CPUL). Field Journal, 4(1), 149–161. Retrieved from http://www.field-journal.org/index.php?page=issue-4
- Buchanan, R. (2010). Wicked problems in Design Thinking. Revista KEPES, 7(6), 7–35. https://doi.org/10.2307/1511637
- Cabinet, 2018, Models for Future SDGs Cities. Cabinet Affaire, Government of Japan. Retrieved from https://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/tiiki/kankyo/ (in Japanese)
- Cai, X., Wallington, K., Shafiee-Jood, M. & Marston, L. (2018). Understanding and managing the food-energy-water nexus – opportunities for water resources research. Advances in Water Resources, 111, 259–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.11.014
- Carpenter, S. R., Booth, E. G., Gillon, S., Kucharik, C. J., Loheide, S., Mase, A. S., … Wardropper, C. B. (2015). Plausible futures of a social-ecological system: Yahara watershed, Wisconsin, USA. Ecology and Society, 20(2):10. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-07433-200210
- Choi, Y., & Suzuki, T. (2013). Food deserts, activity patterns, & social exclusion: The case of Tokyo, Japan. Applied Geography, 43, 87–98.
- City of Chikago. (2009). Our City, Our Future. Chicago.
- Costanza, R., D'Arge, R., Groot, R. Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O'Neill, R., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R., Sutton, P., & Belt, M. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature, 387, 253–260.
- Cusinato, A. (2016). A comment on Scott and Storper’s ‘The nature of cities: The scope and limits of urban theory.’ Papers in Regional Science, 95(4), 895–901.
- Daher, B.T. & Mohtar, R.H. (2015). Water–energy–food (WEF) Nexus Tool 2.0: guiding integrative resource planning and decision-making. Water International Vol.40 No.5–6: 748–771.
- De Vito, R., Portoghese, I., Pagano, A., Fratino, U. & Vurro, M. (2017). An index-based approach for the sustainability assessment of irrigation practice based on the water-energy-food nexus framework. Advances in Water Resources 110, 423–436.
- Farr, D. (2012). Sustainable Urbanism: Urban design with nature, Wiley. 352p.
- Eftelioglu, E., Jiang, Z., Ali, R. & Shekhar, S. (2016). Spatial computing perspective on food energy and water nexus. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6, 62-76. DOI 10.1007/s13412-016-0372-y
- Endo, A., Tsurita, I., Burnett, K. & Orencio, P. M. (2014). A review of the current state of research on the water, energy, and food nexus. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies.Vol.11: 20-30.
- Endo, A. and Oh, T. (2018). The Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Human-Environmental Security in the Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire. Singapore:: Springer, 337p.
- Engelhard, B. (2010). Rooftop to Tabletop: Repurposing Urban Roofs for Food Production. University of Washington. Retrieved from http://www.cityfarmer.org/Benn%20Engelhardroofoptabletop.pdf
- Fang, D. & Chen, B. (2017). Linkage analysis for the water-energy nexus of city. Applied Energy, 189, 770-779. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.04.020
- FAO and UNEP. (1999). The future of our land: facing the challenge. Guidelines for Integrated Planning for Sustainable Management of Land Resources. Rome. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/x3810e/x3810e00.htm
- Freiburg. (2018). Germany - Freiburg - Green City. EcoTipping Point Project. Retrieved from http://www.ecotippingpoints.org/resources.html
- Garcia, D. & You, F. (2017). Systems engineering opportunities for agricultural and organic waste management in the food-water-energy nexus. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 18, 23-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2017.08.004
- Gómez-Baggethun, E., & Barton, D. N. (2013). Classifying and valuing ecosystem services for urban planning. Ecological Economics, 86, 235–245.
- Gondhalekar, D., & Ramsauer, T. (2017). Urban Climate Nexus City: Operationalizing the urban Water-Energy-Food Nexus for climate change adaptation in Munich, Germany. Urban Climate, 19, 28–40.
- Greater Sydney Commission. (2018). A Metropolis of Three Cities; Greater Sydney Regional Plan. Sydney: State of New South Wales. https://www.greater.sydney/metropolis-of-three-cities
- Groenfeldt, D. (2006). Multifunctionality of agricultural water: Looking beyond food production and ecosystem services. Irrigation and Drainage, 55(August 2005), 73–83.
- Gu, Y., Wang, H., Robinson, Z. P., Wang, Z., Wu, J., Li, X., Xu, J., Li, F. (2018). Environmental footprint assessment of green campus from a food-water-energy nexus perspective. CUE2018-Applied Energy Symposium and Forum 2018: Low Carbon Cities and urban energy systems, 5-7 June 2018, Shanghai, China. Energy Procedia 152, 240-246.
- Haase, D., Haase, A. & Rink, D. (2014) Conceptualizing the nexus between urban shrinkage and ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning. Vol.132: 159-169.
- Hara, Y., Mcphearson, T., Sampei, Y., & Mcgrath, B. (2018). Assessing urban agriculture potential: a comparative study of Osaka, Japan and New York city, United States. Sustainability Science, 13, 937–952.
- Heland, J. Von. (2011). Rowing social-ecological systems: morals, culture and resilience. Stockholm University. Retrieved from http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:441732/FULLTEXT01.pdf
- Hoff, H. (2011). Understanding the Nexus. Background paper for the Bonn2011 Nexus Conference. Stockholm Environment Institute, (November), 1–52.
- Hussey, K., & Pittock, J. (2012). The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 17(1):31. http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-04641-170131
- Hussien, W. A., Memon, F. A. & Savic, D. A. (2017). An integrated model to evaluate water-energy-food nexus at a household scale. Environmental Modelling & Software 93, 366-380.
- IPCC. (2014). Summary for policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ( and L. L. W. Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, Ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS.
- IPCC. (2018). Global Warming of 1.5 °C. IPCC SR15. Retrieved from http://report.ipcc.ch/sr15/pdf/sr15_spm_final.pdf
- Jalilov, S. M., Keskinen, M., Varis, O., Amer, S. & Ward, F. A. (2016). Managing the water–energy–food nexus: Gains and losses from new water development in Amu Darya River Basin. Journal of Hydrology, 539, 648-661. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.071
- Johansson, J., Schmid Neset, T. S., & Linnér, B. O. (2010). Evaluating climate visualization: An information visualization approach. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Visualisation, 156–161.
- Kadengal, J., Thirunavukkarasu, S., Vasan, A., Sarangan, V., Sivasubramaniam, A. (2013). The Energy-Water Nexus in Campuses. BuildSys'13: Proceedings of the 5th ACM Workshop on Embedded Systems For Energy-Efficient Buildings, Rome Italy, November 2013, Pages 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1145/2528282.2528288
- Kan, G., Zhang, M., Liang, K., Wang, H., Jiang, Y., Li, J., Ding, L., He, X., Hong, Y., Zuo, D., Bao, Z. & Li, C. (2018). Improving water quantity simulation & forecasting to solve the energy-water-food nexus issue by using heterogeneous computing accelerated global optimization method. Applied Energy, 210, 420-433. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.08.017
- Kibler, K. M, Reinhart, D., Hawkins, C., Motlagh, A. M. & Wright, J. (2018). Food waste and the food-energy-water nexus: A review of food waste management alternatives. Waste Management, 74, 52–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2018.01.014
- Kimbell, L. (2011). Rethinking Design Thinking: Part I. Design and Culture, 3(3), 285–306.
- Kimbell, L. (2012). Rethinking Design Thinking: Part II. Design and Culture, 4(2), 129–148.
- Kurian, M., & Ardakanian, R. (2015). Governing the Nexus: Water, Soil and Waste Resources Considering Global Change, 1–230.
- Lawford, R., Bogardi, J., Marx, S., Jain, S., Pahl Wostl, C., Knüppe, K., Ringler, C., Lansigan, F. & Meza, F. (2013). Basin perspectives on the Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(6), 607-616. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.005
- Lawson, L. (2016). Sowing the city. Nature, 540, 522–524.
- Leung Pah Hang, M. Y., Martinez-Hernandez, E., Leach, M. & Yang, A. (2016) Designing integrated local production systems: A study on the food-energy-water nexus. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 1065-1084. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.194
- Liu, J., Hull, V., Godfray, H. C. J., Tilman, D., Gleick, P., Hoff, H., … Li, S. (2018). Nexus approaches to global sustainable development. Nature Sustainability, 1(9), 466–476.
- Loftus, A. (2009). Intervening in the environment of the everyday. Geoforum, 40(3), 326–334.
- Magis, K. (2010). Community Resilience: An Indicator of Social Sustainability. Society Natural Resources, 23(5), 401–416. https://doi.org/10.1080/08941920903305674
- Malekpour, S., Caball, R., Brown, R. R., Georges, N., Jasieniak, J. (2017) Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Ideas for Monash University Clayton Campus. Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.
- Martinez-Hernandez, E., Leach, M. & Yang, A. (2017). Understanding water-energy-food and ecosystem interactions using the nexus simulation tool NexSym. Applied Energy, 206, 1009-1021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.09.022
- Martinez-Hernandez, E. & Samsatli, S. (2017). Biorefineries and the food, energy, water nexus - towards a whole systems approach to design and planning. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 18, 16-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coche.2017.08.003
- Martínez-Martínez, L., & Calvo, J. (2010). The growing problem of antibiotic resistance in clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria: current situation. Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, 28 Suppl 2(July), 25–31.
- McCalla A. (1997). The Water, Food, and Trade Nexus. In MENA-MED Conference by the World Bank in Marrakesh.
- McClintock, N. (2010). Why farm the city? Theorizing urban agriculture through a lens of metabolic rift. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3(2), 191–207.
- Meeus, S. J., & Gulinck, H. (2008). Semi-Urban Areas in Landscape Research: A Review. Living Reviews in Landscape Research, 2. https://doi.org/10.12942/lrlr-2008-3.
- Merrett, S. (2003). Virtual Water and the Kyoto Consensus. Water International, 28(4), 540–542.
- Miller-Robbie, L., Ramaswami, A. & Amerasinghe, P. (2017). Wastewater treatment and reuse in urban agriculture: exploring the food, energy, water, and health nexus in Hyderabad, India. Environmental Research Letters, 12(7), 075005. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa6bfe
- Mitchell, T., & Harris, K. (2012). Resilience: a risk management approach. Retrieved from www.dochas.ie/Shared/Files/4/Resilience_a_risk_management_approach.pdf
- Miralles-Wilhelm, F. (2016). Development and application of integrative modeling tools in support of food-energy-water nexus planning-a research agenda. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, 6, 3-10. DOI 10.1007/s13412-016-0361-1
- Mok, H. F., Williamson, V. G., Grove, J. R., Burry, K., Barker, S. F., & Hamilton, A. J. (2014). Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34(1), 21–43.
- Moreno-Peñaranda, R. (2011). Japan’s urban agriculture: cultivating sustainability and well-being. Our World. Retrieved from https://ourworld.unu.edu/en/japans-urban-agriculture-cultivating-sustainability-and-wellbeing
- Morgan, K. (2009). Feeding the city: The challenge of urban food planning. International Planning Studies, 14(4), 341–348.
- Moss, R. H., Edmonds, J. a, Hibbard, K. a, Manning, M. R., Rose, S. K., van Vuuren, D. P., … Wilbanks, T. J. (2010). The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature, 463(7282), 747–56.
- Mougeot, Luc J.A. (2000). Urban Agriculture: Definition, Presence, Potentials and Risks, and Policy Challenges. City Feeding People Series No. 31. International Development Research Center (IDRC). Retrieved from https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/26429/117785.pdf?sequence=12
- Munksgaard, J., Pedersen, K. A., & Wien, M. (2000). Impact of household consumption on CO2 emissions. Energy Economics, 22(4), 423–440.
- Nature. (2010). The century of the city. Nature, 467(Oct 21), 900.
- Ozturk, I. (2015). Sustainability in the food-energy-water nexus: Evidence from BRICS (Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China, and South Africa) countries. Energy, 93, 999-1010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.09.104
- Pacetti, T., Lombardi, L. & Federici, G. (2015). Water-energy Nexus: a case of biogas production from energy crops evaluated by Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methods. Journal of Cleaner Production, 101, 278-291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.084
- Parshall L, Gurney K, Hammer SA, Mendoza D, Zhou Y, Geethakumar S. (2010). Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insight from the United States. Energy Policy, 38:4765- 4782.
- Powell, L. (2016). urban sustainability. Nature, 536(Aug 25), 391–393.
- Ramaswami, A., Boyer, D., Nagpure, A. S., Fang, A., Bogra, S., Bakshi, B., Cohen, E. & Rao-Ghorpade, A. (2017). An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 025008. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa5556
- Ringler, C., Bhaduri, A. & Lawford, R. (2013). The nexus across water, energy, land and food (WELF): potential for improved resource use efficiency? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(6), 617-624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2013.11.002
- Rogelj, J., Den Elzen, M., Höhne, M., Franzen, T., Fekete, H., Winkler, H., Schaeffer, R., Sha, F., et al. (2016). Paris Agreement climate proposals need a boost to keep warming well below 2°C. Nature, 534: 631-639.
- Romero-lankao, P., & Gnatz, D. M. (2016). Conceptualizing urban water security in an urbanizing world. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 21, 45–51.
- Romero-lankao, P., Mcphearson, T., & Davidson, D. J. (2017). The food-energy-water nexus and urban complexity. Nature Climate Change, 7(4), 233–235.
- Sachs, I. (1980). Developing in Harmony with Nature: Consumption Patterns, Time and Space Uses, Resources Profiles and Technological Choices. Canadian Journal of Development Studies, 1(1), 154–175.
- Sachs, I. (1988). Work, Food and Energy in Urban Ecodevelopment. Economic and Political Weekly, 23(9), 425-427+429-434.
- Sanyé-Mengual, E., Anguelovski, I., Oliver-Solà, J., Montero, J. I., & Rieradevall, J. (2016). Resolving differing stakeholder perceptions of urban rooftop farming in Mediterranean cities: promoting food production as a driver for innovative forms of urban agriculture. Agriculture and Human Values, 33(1), 101–120.
- Scanlon, B. R., Ruddell, B. L., Reed, P. M., Hook, R. I., Zheng, C., Tidwell, V. C. & Siebert, S. (2017) The food-energy-water nexus: Transforming science for society, Water Resour. Res., 53, 3550–3556, DOI:10.1002/2017WR020889.
- Schlör, H., Venghaus, S. & Hake, J. F. (2018). The FEW-Nexus city index – Measuring urban resilience. Applied Energy, 210, 382-392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.02.026
- Siddiqi, A. & Anadon, L.D. (2011) The water-energy nexus in Middle East and North Africa. Energy Policy Vol.39 No.8: 4529–4540.
- Smajgl, A., Ward, J. & Pluschke, L. (2016). The water–food–energy Nexus - Realising a new paradigm. Journal of Hydrology, 533, 533-540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2015.12.033
- Stead, D. (2012). Best Practices and Policy Transfer in Spatial Planning. Planning Practice and Research, 27(1), 103–116.
- Stead, D., & Pojani, D. (2018). Learning across cities and regions : the limits to transferring “best practice.” In N. F. Dotti (Ed.), Knowledge, Policymaking and Learning for European Cities and Regions: From Research to Practice (pp. 58–68). Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Steffen, W., Richardson,K., Rockström, J. Cornell, S.E., Fetzer, I., Bennett, E.M., Biggs, R., Carpenter, S.R., De Vries, W., De Wit, C.A., Folke, C., Gerten, D., Heinke, J., Mace, G.M. Persson, L.M., Ramanathan, V. Reyers, B. & Sörlin, S. (2015) Planetary boundaries: Guiding human development on a changing planet. Science 13, Vol. 347, Issue 6223, 1259855.
- SUGI. (2016). Sustainable urbanisation global Initiative (SUGI)/food-water-energy nexus. Urban Europe. Retrieved from https://jpi-urbaneurope.eu/calls/sugi
- Tanaka T. (2003) A Study on the Volume and Transportation Distance as to Food Imports (“Food Mileage”) and its Influence on the Environment. J. Agric. Policy Res. No. 5, 45-59.
- The Economist. (2011, Jun 23). Where do you live? The Economist. Retrieved from https://www.economist.com/special-report/2011/06/23/where-do-you-live
- The Guardian. (2018, Oct 12). More than a million UK residents live in 'food deserts', says study. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2018/oct/12/more-than-a-million-uk-residents-live-in-food-deserts-says-study.
- The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA). (2015). Renewable energy in the water, energy and food nexus. International Renewable Energy Agency, (January), 1–125.
- The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). (2008). China’s Policies and Actions for Addressing Climate Change. Retrieved from https://carnegieendowment.org/files/WHITE_PAPER_ON_CLIMATE_CHANGE-EN.pdf
- The World Bank. (2018). Overview. Urban Development. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/urbandevelopment/overview.
- Thieme, T., & Kovacs, E. (2015). Services and Slums: Rethinking Infrastructures and Provisioning across the Nexus. Nexus Network think piece Series No. 4. Vol. 004. Retrieved from http://www.thenexusnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/ThiemeandKovacs_ServicesandSlumsNexusThinkpiece2015.pdf
- Thinyane, M., Terzoli, A., Thinyane, H., Hansen, S., & Gumbo, S. (2012). Living Lab Methodology as an Approach to Innovation in ICT4D: The Siyakhula Living Lab Experience. IST-Africa 2012, 1–9.
- Thomas, R., Pojani, D., Lenferink, S., Bertolini, L., Stead, D., & Krabben, E. van der. (2018). Is transit-oriented development (TOD) an internationally transferable policy concept? Regional Studies, 52(9), 1201–1213.
- Tornaghi, C. (2014). Critical geography of urban agriculture. Progress in Human Geography, 38(4), 551–567.
- Townsend, A. (2013). Smart Cities: Buggy and Brittle,” Places Journal, October 2013. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.22269/131007
- Tratalos, J., Fuller, R. A., Warren, P. H., Davies, R. G., & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Urban form, biodiversity potential and ecosystem services. Landscape and Urban Planning, 83(4), 308–317.
- Uen, T. S., Chang, F. J., Zhoua, Y. & Tsai, W. P. (2018). Exploring synergistic benefits of Water-Food-Energy Nexus through multi-objective reservoir optimization schemes. Science of the Total Environment 633, 341-351. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.03.172
- United Nations (UN) .(2018). World Urbanization Prospects 2018. Retrieved from: https://www.un.org/development/desa/en/news/population/2018-revision-of-world-urbanization-prospects.html.
- Urban Nexus. (2013a). Health and quality of life in urban areas. Urban Nexus WP3 Synthesis Report. Retrieved from http://www.urban-nexus.org.eu
- Urban Nexus. (2013b). Competing for Urban Land. Nexus Synthesis Report. Retrieved from http://www.urban-nexus.org.eu
- Urban Nexus. (2013c). Synthesis Report: Urban Climate Resilience. Retrieved from http://www.urban-nexus.org.eu
- Varbanov, P.S. (2014) Energy and water interactions: Implications for industry. Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, Vol.5: 15–21.
- Venkatesh, G., Chan, A., & Brattebø, H. (2014). Understanding the water-energy-carbon nexus in urban water utilities: Comparison of four city case studies and the relevant influencing factors. Energy, 75, 153–166.
- Verburg, P. H., Mertz, O., Erb, K. H., Haberl, H., & Wu, W. (2013). Land system change and food security: Towards multi-scale land system solutions. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 5(5), 494–502.
- Villarroel Walker, R., Beck, M. B., Hall, J. W., Dawson, R. J. & Heidrich, O. (2014). The energy-water-food nexus: Strategic analysis of technologies for transforming the urban metabolism. Journal of Environmental Management, 14, 1104-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.054
- Vogt, K. A., Patel-Weynand, T., Shelton, M., Vogt, D. J., Gordon, J. C., Mukumoto, C. T., … Roads, P. A. (2010). Sustainability Unpacked: Food Energy and Water for Resilient Environments and Society. New York: Earthscan Publications Ltd.
- Vora, N., Shah, A., Bilec, M. M. & Khanna, V. (2017). ACS Sustainable Chem. Food-Energy-Water Nexus: Quantifying Embodied Energy and GHG Emissions from Irrigation through Virtual Water Transfers in Food Trade. Eng., 5, 2119-2128. DOI:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02122
- Voytenko, Y., McCormick, K., Evans, J., & Schliwa, G. (2016). Urban living labs for sustainability and low carbon cities in Europe: Towards a research agenda. Journal of Cleaner Production, 123(August), 45–54.
- Wackernagel, M. & Rees, W. (1998) Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island: New Society Publishers. 176p.
- Wahl, D. C., & Baxter, S. (2008). The Designer’s Role in Facilitating Sustainable Solutions. Design Issues, 24(2), 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1162/desi.2008.24.2.72
- Walker, R. E., Keane, C. R., & Burke, J. G. (2010). Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health and Place, 16(5), 876–884.
- Wang, S., Cao, T. & Chen, B. (2017). Urban energy-water nexus based on modified input-output analysis. Applied Energy, 196, 208-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.02.011
- Whittinghill, L. J., & Rowe, D. B. (2012). The role of green roof technology in urban agriculture. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 27(4), 314–322.
- White, D. D., Wutich, A. Y., Larson, K. L., & Lant, T. (2015). Water management decision makers’ evaluations of uncertainty in a decision support system: the case of WaterSim in the Decision Theater. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 58(4), 616–630.
- White, D. J., Hubacek, K., Feng, K., Sun, L. & Meng, B. (2018). The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in East Asia: A tele-connected value chain analysis using inter-regional input-output analysis. Applied Energy, 210, 550-567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.159
- Wolsink, M. (2012). The research agenda on social acceptance of distributed generation in smart grids: Renewable as common pool resources. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(1), 822–835.
- Wongbumru, T. & Bart, D. (2014). Review Article: Smart Communities for Future Development: Lessons from Japan. Built, 3, 69-75. Retrieved from http://www.builtjournal.org/built_issue_3/05%20Review%20Article.pdf.
- Xue, J., Liu, G., Casazza, M. & Ulgiati, S. (2018). Development of an urban FEW nexus online analyzer to support urban circular economy strategy planning. Energy, 164(1), 475-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.08.198
- Yan, W., & Galloway, B. (2017). Rethinking Resilience: Adaptation and Transformation. Netherlands: Springer. 396p.
- Yokohari, M., & Amati, M. (2005). Nature in the city, city in the nature: case studies of the restoration of urban nature in Tokyo, Japan and Toronto, Canada. Landscape and Ecological Engineering, 1(1), 53–59.
- Zhang, J., Campana P.E., Yao, T., Zhang, Y., Lundblad, A., Melton, F. & Yan, J. (2018). The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States. Applied Energy, 227, 449-464. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.07.036
- Zhang, P., Zhang, L., Chang, Y., Xu, M., Hao, Y., Liang, S., Liu, G., Yang, Z. & Wang, C. (2019). Food-energy-water (FEW) nexus for urban sustainability: A comprehensive review. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 142, 215-224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.11.018